What is Dyslexia?
Dyslexia affects nearly 20% of the population, males and females equally, as well as people from different ethnic and socio-economic backgrounds. Dyslexia is the most common learning disability affecting nearly 1 in 5 people to some degree. Nearly 80% of students that are receiving supplemental instruction for reading are dyslexic. In a typical classroom of 25 students, as many as 5 of those students could be dyslexic. Dyslexia is more common than ADD/ADHD and autism and the below figures are approximate:
1 in 5 have dyslexia
1 in 14 have ADD/ADHD
1 in 88 have autism
1 in 2 people with ADD/ADHD is also dyslexic
✓ Delayed speech
✓ Mispronunciation of words (bisghetti for spaghetti, aminal for animal, continents for consonant)
✓ Saying the wrong word or forgetting the word (expressive language)
✓ Difficulty rhyming words
✓ Difficulty manipulating the sounds of speech (what is the word if the /t/ sound in ✓ CAT is changed to an /n/ sound?)
✓ Difficulty remembering letter names and their speech sound(s)
✓ Difficulty learning sight words
✓ Difficulty spelling words, especially retaining the correct spelling after a test
✓ Misreading words
✓ Slow and choppy reading
✓ Problems with word recall
✓ Problems with rote memorization
✓ low self-esteem
The research is clear:
The International Dyslexia Association’s definition:
“Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin.
It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and / or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.
Adopted by the IDA Board of Directors, Nov. 12, 2002. This Definition is also used by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD).
Studies show that individuals with dyslexia process information in a different area of the brain than do non-dyslexics.
Many people who are dyslexic are of average to above average intelligence.